Male Reproductive System:
1. testes (also called testicles) - the two testicles are the primary male sex organs that perform the following functions:
2. series of ducts - two epididymides, two seminal ducts, two ejaculatory ducts, and one urethra.
- the epididymis is very small in diameter but measures approximately 20 feet in length. It serves the following functions:
- the seminal ducts (or vas deferens) serve as excretory ducts for the testes, connecting the epididymides with the ejaculatory ducts.
- the ejaculatory ducts pass through the prostate gland and terminate in the urethra.
- the urethra is a small tube leading from the floor of the bladder to the exterior. It is approximately 8 inches in length in the male. It passes through the prostate gland and serves as a passageway for eliminating urine from the bladder and also for reproductive fluids during sexual orgasm.
3. accessory glands - two seminal vesicles, one prostate gland, two Cowper's glands.
4. supporting structures - scrotum, penis, spermatic cords.
Female Reproductive System:
1. uterus - a pear-shaped structure, located in the pelvic cavity between the bladder and rectum. It accomplishes three functions: sloughs the endometrium during menstruation, houses and nourishes a baby throughout pregnancy, and provides labor's rhythmic contractions of the muscular uterine wall during birth.
2. fallopian tubes - structures attached to the uterus that serve as passageways for eggs to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Fertilization usually occurs in these tubes.
3. ovaries - small organs the size and shape of almonds that lie behind and below Fallopian tubes and are anchored to the uterus and broad ligament. The ovaries manufacture and expel ova (ovulation) and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone.
4. vagina - a collapsible tube, capable of great distention, which receives the seminal fluid from the male, serves as the lower part of the birth canal, and acts as the excretory duct for uterine secretions and the menstrual flow.
5. vulva - the structures that compose the external genitals: mons veneris, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, urinary meatus, vaginal orifice, and Bartholin's glands.
6. perineum - the area between the vaginal orifice and anus that is frequently torn or cut (episiotomy) at childbirth.
7. breasts - mammary glands that secrete milk for infant.